Wind energy is wind energy, a form of renewable energy. It has been used since the dawn of humanity as a means of propulsion for various craft and later as energy windmills. The first to use windmills were Persians, from seventh century BC, especially for grinding grain. In Europe, windmills constructed from century XII in England and France, were used both for grinding grain and for other activities such as saws, grinding tobacco manufacturing paper, pressing linseed oil and grinding stone paints painted.
Windmills have evolved as power from 25 to 30 KW to 1500 KW from start becoming at the same time and place to store the material processed. In America, settlers used the ideas of windmills for pumping water to farms isolated from the deep sea. With the discovery of electricity, these mills were used in Generation of electricity used in individual households.
Modern wind turbines convert wind energy into electricity producing between 50-60 kW propellers in diameters from 1m and 2 – 3mW propellers in diameters from 6m.
In late 2010, world capacity of wind generators was 194.4 thousand MW. All turbines around the globe can generate 430 TWh / year, equivalent to 2.5% of world energy consumption.
Wind industry involves a movement of 40 billion euros and 670,000 people working in it worldwide. The countries with the largest installed capacity in wind farms are China, the US, Germany and Spain. In early 2011, the share of wind energy in the total domestic consumption was 24% in Denmark, 14% in Spain and Portugal, 10% in Ireland and Germany, 5.3% in the EU; the percentage is 3% in Romania in early 2012.
At the same time in Romania there were over a thousand wind turbines, half of them in Dobrogea.
Wind energy in Romania – The wind sector in Romania have invested CEZ (Czech Republic), Enel (Italy), Energias de Portugal (Portugal) and Iberdrola Renovables (Spain). The first to invest in wind technology in Romania were CEZ, which installed 115 turbines at Fantanele, Constanta county, 90 of which are already linked to the national electricity network. The turbines for the wind park built by CEZ are delivered by US industrial giant General Electric.
• In 2009 only 14 MW were installed.
• In 2010, windmills were installed 462 MW in total.
• In 2011 Romania reached 850 MW in total wind.
In Romania, in early 2012, there are over 1,000 wind turbines that produce 3% of total energy. Investments in wind created so far 1000 jobs, of which there are over 500 in Dobrogea wind turbines made by: CEZ, the Portuguese EDP or Italy’s Enel.
According to energy map ‘green’ biomass potential in Romania comprises 65%, 17% wind, 12% solar, small hydro 4%, 1% + 1% geothermal voltaic.
In Romania, with the exception of mountain areas, where harsh weather conditions are cumbersome installation and maintenance of wind generators, speeds at or above the level of 4 m / s are found in Central Moldavian and Dobrogea. Seaside presents it as potential energy in this part of the country’s annual average wind speed exceeds the threshold of 4 m / s. In the littoral area, the short and medium term wind energy potential is of about 2,000 MW, with an average amount of electricity of 4,500 GWh / year.
Based on the evaluation and interpretation of data recorded in perspective in Romania can be mounted wind turbines with a capacity of 14,000 MW, which means an energy contribution of nearly 23 000 GWh / year. Transelectrica warned that the national system can be taken 4.000MW maximum wind turbines in the background to receive requests for connection to the network for projects of over 30,000 MW, of which 8,000 MW have already signed contracts.
In the current context, characterized by the alarming increase in pollution caused by energy production from fossil fuels it is becoming increasingly important to reduce dependence on these fuels.
Wind energy has already proven to be a very good solution to global energy problems. Using renewable resources is addressed not only to produce energy, but the particular way of generating reworded and development model by decentralizing sources. Wind energy in particular is among the forms of renewable energy that lends itself to small-scale applications.
Advantages of using wind energy:
• The main advantage of wind energy is zero emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases, because they do not burn fuel.
• No waste is produced.
• Reduced costs per unit of energy produced.
• Reduced shutdown.
Disadvantages of using wind energy:
• Resource Energy relatively limited.
• Unsteady due to the variation of wind speed and the low number of possible locations. Few places on earth offer the possibility of enough electricity through wind energy.
• At the start, a major drawback of wind energy production was quite high price of energy production and relatively low reliability of the turbines.
• Another disadvantage is the “visual pollution” – that is, that have an unpleasant appearance – and one that would produce “noise pollution”.
• Also, the turbines affect the environment and the surrounding ecosystems, killing birds and requiring large areas for their installation.
• The land on which to place must be set aside.
• There is also a high risk of destruction if storms.