Biomass – is a renewable energy, providing bio fuels (generally solid) and bio fuels (usually in liquid form). It should be noted that renewable energy obtained by burning biomass is not necessarily a total clean energy. The wood covers more than 10% of primary energy demand in many countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America and in some European countries (Sweden, Finland, Austria). The use of wood as a source of energy has skyrocketed in recent decades in developing countries, but this resource has not been exploited sustainably, causing massive deforestation. Emissions from burning wood in an industrial heating are lower than the combustion of fossil fuels. If forests where the wood is managed in a sustainable manner, the CO2 emissions caused by the production pathway, not merely those caused by fuel consumed in operations of planting, harvesting and marketing. This would represent approximately 5% of fuel sold.
Without achieve specific energy crops, biomass potential could be doubled only by the systematic recovery of all organic waste: recyclable household and industrial waste, treatment by methanisation filters sewage and agricultural waste, which would generate biogas. Knowing the impressive quantities of waste that exist today and that normal ‘average 500 m3 of methane per tone of fermented organic waste, we can infer that enormous amount of gas is released to the atmosphere. This gas, which stalled in waste captured and used, can be a tremendous source of energy, it is considered almost inexhaustible.
Biomass is commonly used in cogeneration systems that produce electricity as in conventional power plants through waste heat otherwise lost, for various applications: space heating, industrial needs, agriculture etc. This technology allows increased energy conversion efficiency. World Statistics estimated that in a year, worldwide, man unused biomass amounts to about 150109 tones.
Biogas produced by aerobic decomposition of waste containing about 50-90% methane (CH4), 10-40% and 0-0.1% CO2 and H2S has a composition comparable to gross methane gas.
1,25 kcal.?gas • 106 Considering that 1 ton of dry biomass produces methane gas only 300 m3 N (300 m3 to 250 kg N equivalent conventional fuel) resulting 2.5 barrels oil t / year, tons of conventional fuel. Considering that only 25% of all biomass is converted into methane gas, resulting 50109 barrels of crude oil, that mean 34 109 – 50.109 tones yearly. And if annually for heating is consumed worldwide 9109 t of conventional fuel (of which more than 65% oil and natural gas), means that only 5% of the biomass converted annually provides current consumption of fuel around the globe.
Bio fuels liquid more expensive in terms of obtaining and products based on energy crops such as reed, cane, sunflower, wheat, corn, rapeseed, are best placed value in applications in automotive, as bio fuels. They are currently using, especially for thermal power engines, being mixed with small amounts of traditional fuels to improve their characteristics.
Using biogas obtained with burning debris that remain after fermentation, resulting from debris collected in a locality which has 1 million inhabitants, would represent approximately 50% of annual gas consumption.
The literature indicates that store solar energy biomass through photosynthesis process of plants comes from. Biological conversion of sunlight through photosynthesis year after year, such as biomass, an energy reserve evaluated in March 1021 J / year, which is ten times the total amount of energy consumed worldwide each year.
Rape crops are growing by the day and more people are thinking about when it comes to fuel the power plant, both one facet of what is called biomass.
• Biomass can be used in many arenas: heating (pellet) as well as car fuel (diesel or bio-ethanol) or power generation (biogas).
• Biomass is an energy source that can accumulate and store. Energy plants growing in Romania decrease dependence on energy imports.
• Plants used as a source of biomass require large areas for cultivation, thus interfering with agricultural land allocated for food production. This is felt in the production of bio ethanol: it can be morally justified because the rich to feed the machine with “corn” while the poor starving?
• If all consumers would switch to thermal power plants with wood pellets, forests in the country would be insufficient to cover demand and energy imports would be needed.